The authors are highly grateful to AICRP sunflower system, Hyderabad for support and Visva-Bharati University for providing academic and Technical Support throughout the research program. The data were analysed in the computer using the Windostat version 8.6 from Indostat service Hyderabad, India.

Data showed that the temperature average (High/low), Humidity average and rainy day which was recorded during December to April. Akcura M, Kaya Y, Taner S. Evaluation of durum wheat genotypes using parametric and nonparametric stability statistics. Tabrizi M, Hassanzadeh F, Moghaddam M, Alvikia S, Aharzad S, Ghaffari M. Combining ability and gene action in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) using linextester method. Worede F, Mehadi T, Wondimu S. Stability analyses of tef (Eragrostis tef [Zucc.] Trotter) grain yield in dryland areas of Northeast Ethiopia.

Finlay KW, Wilkinson G. The analysis of adaptation in a plant-breeding programme. The genetic basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration in wheat. To calculate economic heterosis parent and check had higher mean values were considered desirable for all the characters. The field’s topsoil was removed prior to the application of basal fertilisers. The weather data of the experimental area during 2017–2018 and 2018–2019 are depicted in Supplementary files .

The importance of G × E for seed yield, oil content, and oil yield indicates that variance in genotype performance is due to genotypes’ regression to their environment, and hence performance is predicted. The mean squared deviation of G × E was not found significant to 100 seed weight, plant height, head diameter and vol. Weight implying that unpredictable components of genotype-environment interaction had a greater impact. Langhi, Patel reported similar non-significant variations owing to genotype × environment for plant height.

Pollen was collected into paper bags from chosen flowering heads using a light tap of the hand on the back of the head. Pollen grains were administered in the morning between 9 and 11 AM using a camel hairbrush dipped in pollen and gently dragged over the receptive surface of the stigmas. Pollination was performed in each combination for five to six days chipotle food memory contest to guarantee an adequate seed set. Following pollination, flowers were packaged and properly labelled for storage until harvesting. Field evaluations were conducted in 2015–16 and 2016–17 at AICRP-Sunflower, Nimpith, during the Rabi season. Ahmed MA, Hassan TH, Zahran HA. Heterosis for seed, oil yield and quality of some different hybrids sunflower.

The hybridization programme was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the AICRP-Sunflower, Nimpithcentre, during the Kharif season. Cytoplasmic male sterile A-lines were maintained by crossing with their respective maintainer lines, whereas maintainer lines were maintained by selfing. On the basis of flowering synchronisation, hybridization was initiated between the parents at the outset of flowering. The CMS lines were raised in one block and the restorer lines in the next block in the crossing block. The pollination of chosen CMS flowers was accomplished by collecting pollen from previously bagged heads before blossoming. Bags were placed over male and female flowers a day prior to prevent contamination and to avoid spilling pollen.