DAVID gene ontology analysis of the DMC genes that was decreased in the post-surgery group revealed an enrichment in 11 functional categories . The top two significant functional groups were DNA binding and regulation of RNA metabolic process . Moreover, Additional file 1 shows a number of developmental functional groups identified including skeletal system morphogenesis and embryonic skeletal system development/morphogenesis. DAVID gene ontology analysis on the genes with increased DMCs post-surgery identified 11 enriched groups . The heat shock protein binding was the most significantly enriched group.

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Thus, our results demonstrating a specific role for tongue fat volume could explain the observed lack of efficacy. If only fat tissue was removed, coblation could be more effective. We hypothesized that a weight loss program, through restricted diet and exercise, could not only induce weight loss and improve cardiovascular function in overweight horses, but could also alter the intestinal microbiota to improve gastrointestinal health. The objective of this study was to red mountain weight loss menu investigate effects of weight loss on morphological measurements, cardiovascular parameters, fecal microbiota, and fecal metabolome in a cohort of clinically normal but overweight horses and ponies. This was to be achieved using a multiomics approach combined with morphological assessment, cardiovascular diagnostics, and clinical observations. In the present study, the exact mechanisms by which DNA methylation regulates the transcription of ITGB3 was not investigated.

We thank Victoria Ngo and Simone Buckman, who managed and assessed the participants, and our research assistants, Emily Klein, Camilla Schanche-Perret Gentil, and Brandon Smith, who collected and entered the data. Given the available data, responders did not differ from non-responders for either intervention when considering baseline demographics, psychological or disease severity variables. This indicates the broad applicability of both interventions. Incorporating short-term improvements to predict sustainability, a stepwise logistic regression was performed to predict responders. Since there were no documented short-term benefits that differentiated WL responders, such a regression could not be performed. Logistic regression correctly classified 73% of GEM responders and 78% of GEM non-responders based on short-term improvements in A1c, BMI and MES .

Future studies are needed to determine whether DNA methylation at the ITGB3 region influences transcription factor binding and the regulation of gene expression. Moreover, additional studies are warranted to measure DNA methylation of the transcription factors themselves to determine if that impacts how they bind to the DNA, and thereby impacts expression. There were 6 KEGG pathways enriched in the increased DMC genes in the post-surgery obese group including calcium signaling pathway , neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction , notch signaling pathway and mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis . KEGG pathway analysis of the DMC genes that were decreased in the pre-surgery obese group revealed an enrichment in 11 pathways , including regulation of actin cytoskeleton , focal adhesion , insulin signaling pathway and adipocytokine signaling pathway . There were 6 KEGG pathways enriched in the increased DMC genes in the pre-surgery obese group including long-term potentiation , phosphatidylinositol signaling system , chemokine signaling pathway and calcium signaling pathway . Interestingly, the focal adhesion pathway was also enriched in the increased DMC genes .

Horse 12 was enrolled in a rehabilitation program that began as 10 min walking in hand twice daily on day 15 with a gradual increase in time to include trotting for 10 min twice daily by day 25 . Fecal samples were collected as per recommendations for microbiota analysis outlined by on the same day at the same time each week. The time point of sampling was attributed in accordance with week number of the study, i.e., week 1 was time point one , week 3 was timepoint 3 , and week 6 was time point six . Freshly voided feces that had been produced after the horses’ morning feed were used.

It is recognized that diet is a driving factor of microbial community composition in the animal kingdom . Therefore, one of the big advantages of equine studies is that tight regulation and uniform nature of diet can be achieved. In our study, this is reflected in the generalized similarities in the taxonomy of the bacterial communities in the treatment and control groups as revealed by 16S rRNA sequencing. There have been a number of studies investigating the effect of diet (73–75) and the effects of dietary restriction on gut microbiota in equids . The core microbiota of horses has been shown to be relatively stable with 65% of the microbial community retained when horses were on a restricted fiber-based diet .

In this study, we investigated how the SAT transcriptional capacity for mitochondria changed following diet- and surgery-induced interventions in 4 independent, pan-European weight-loss studies using a standardized set of bioinformatics analyses. Our findings show that mitochondria-related gene expression is regulated in opposing directions following diet-induced vs surgically induced weight loss with a long-term follow-up. Specifically, diet-induced weight loss downregulated, while surgery-induced weight loss upregulated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism . We observed the strongest effects in mtDNA-encoded mRNA transcripts. Additionally, we confirmed upregulated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism at the protein level following surgery-induced weight loss. In conclusion, this study shows that long-term diet-induced weight loss transcriptionally downregulated mitochondrial pathways in SAT.

The data presented in the study are deposited in the ENA repository, accession number ERP127102. Initial processing of samples was carried out within 6 h of collection. The fecal ball was removed from the container, and a 10-g sample was taken from the center of the ball for both metabolome and microbiota analysis and placed in a sterile container. These samples were numerically labeled so as not to bias the analysis and were stored at −80 °C until further processing.

These results indicate that the majority of transcripts targeting mitochondria were affected by the weight-loss percentage in DiOGenes and KOBS, although in opposing directions. All data were analyzed using SPSS for Mac (version 24.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) or R statistical programming language (version 3.3.3). The ITGB3 construct was either mock methylated or methylated using 1600 μM S-adenosylmethionine and two different DNA methyltransferases, SssI and HhaI . Mouse muscle cell lines C2C12 were cultured in DMEM, supplemented with 10% serum and 1% of an antibiotic/antimycotic mixture. Cells were co-transfected with 100 ng of pCpGL-basic with the ITGB3 promoter insert or without and 2 ng of pRL renilla luciferase control reporter vector using the Lipofectamine 3000 transfection reagent .