The second most common situation indicated the possibility of adding more detail to SNOMED CT or the reference terminologies (57 out of 241, corresponding to 23.6%). In 35 cases new synonyms were discovered, and three pairs of concepts indicated errors. As future work, we plan to conduct a study to analyze structurally caterwauling definition congruent concepts between pairs of any two META terminologies with explicitly defined hierarchical relationships, e.g., not limited to SNOMED CT being Terminology 2. We are also planning a more extensive evaluation of the results. The work in this paper was limited to pairs of structurally congruent concepts.

Schulz et al. identify granularity-related problems with “cross-granularity integration” in the biomedical domain . Rector et al.’s analysis provides logical formulations of important distinctions between density and related properties . Figure 2 shows an example where congruent concepts were identified as alternative classifications.

ICH stands as the seminal initiative in the domain of regulatory harmonization for medical products. The aim is to contribute to a more timely introduction of new medicines and continued availability of approved medicines to patients. Moreover, it works to fulfill this goal through the development of harmonized guidelines through a process of scientific consensus by regulatory and industry experts. Furthermore, a key ingredient to the success of the ICH is the commitment by its regulatory members to implement its guidelines. Thus, finalized ICH guidelines are implemented in the U.S. as FDA guidances through its usual Federal Register publication process. The congruent concepts Chemical Viewed Structurally from CPM and Chemical categorized structurally from SNOMED are deemed synonyms that were not recognized before by our auditor and should be merged.

In such a situation, the same conceptual knowledge may be classified in different ways. We call these “alternative classifications.” In this paper, we are describing the use of structural congruency in pairs of terminologies to alert a human auditor to possible cases of harmonization and correction. Due to the importance of SNOMED CT (abbreviated as “SNOMED”), we focus on its concepts. Figure 1 shows an abstract layout of two structurally congruent concepts to elucidate the above definition.

Before that, let’s rename the column containing the original scientific names to “verbatim_scientificName”. From now on, “scientificName” corresponds to the verified names . As the column “original_search” in “query_names” and “names_clean” are equal, only the first will be kept. The availability and quality of standarized meta‐information is the key for accessing the huge masses of raw data stored in files and databases world‐wide. The HEMIS project is carried out by UNEP/HEM, Munich, Germany, for the harmonization of environmental information. This paper describes one of the main aspects of the design considerations for the HEMIS meta‐databases and information system.