That anything is like anything else is sufficient foundation for a myth, while the magician would consider that to do anything to one such object would practically affect the other object it resembled. To illustrate this, let me call attention to one of my charms — a natural agate pebble like a human eye. Roughly, the three stages in the history of mythology coincide with the three stages in the history of culture. Actually, the law of continuity holds here as elsewhere, and spirits of light begin to appear even raja vikramarka movie review in the second stage. Applying this system of chronology to the history of the Aryans, Meyer holds that the third stage, the period of fixed agricultural life and of belief in individualised gods of light, was only reached by the Aryans in ethnic times — in times when they had already formed themselves into those groups in which they are known to history. The pro-ethnic Aryans, on the other hand, were in the period of pastoral life, and believed mainly in the spirits of the storm, in wind and weather demons.

Thanks to the labours of the various committees the social interest of the Congress was brilliantly assured, and it may be affirmed that never before was the subject of folk-lore brought so prominently or so sympathetically before the public. It were ungracious not to acknowledge the liberal space accorded by the press to the Congress proceedings, or the marked fulness and accuracy of the reports. Mr. Stuart, of the National Observer and Anti- Jacobin staff, kindly made himself the medium of commu- nication between the Congress officials and his colleagues of the press, and his services were as appreciated on the one as on the other side. It will be universally felt that the Executive Com- mittee was as fortunate in its choice of sectional Chairmen as the Organising Committee had been in its choice of a President.

So even here the bride comes under the ” hand” of the husband, just as in ancient Rome the bride, by the dextrarum junctio, came under the manus of the husband, was ” handed over” to him. _ But the joining of hands is also from very early times the outward sign of a troth that two persons give to each other. ” Handschlag”, ” Hand in Hand geloben”, ” Handgehibde”, ” Manu firmare”, are familiar legal phrases in Germany.

Professor JOHN RHYS said that he agreed with everything that Mr. MacRitchie had said. He had just lately published something on the same lines, and there come to the conclusion with regard to fairy tales that the materials certainly come from two sources — perhaps compara- tively few from the mere storehouse of imagination, and a good deal more from reflecting the traditions of some ancient race. With regard to dwarfs, the subject was very interesting, and he would like to hear more about it. Mr. W. F. KiRBY called the attention of the Conference to Mr. Jacobs’ proposal of tabulating the incidents of folk-tales in such a way as to be able to get a whole tale in a few words for scientific purposes. He had never heartily approved of the present way of tabulating folk-tales, which seemed to him to involve too cumbersome and gigantic a task.

It consists in rubbing the sufferer’s thighs with another man’s fasting-spittle. It was also the favourite cure of my old nurse for our growing-pains. Then everyone knows that it was by the direct application of his saliva that our Saviour cured the blind and dumb.

To aid with weight reduction, weight loss gummies must be taken at the appropriate intervals and dosages. The efficacy of a weight-loss pill often depends upon who you ask. Some people claim that weight loss gummies are ineffective, but this is not the case.

And we find it in almost every period of the history of Indo- European peoples as far as our records go. The work of the last generation tends to show that the origin of contract, /.«., of promises being enforced by law, is not to be sought in that direction at all, but in sanctions which were at • first only religious, and were later adopted by the sovereign power in the State. We find in Roman antiquities the strong tradition of a social and religious cult of Fides, of good faith between man and man. This, and other and similar things, together with a good deal of Greek evidence, and a certain amount of Oriental evidence, point in one direction, and suggest that religion enforces promises long before the sovereign power takes any account of them.

The Aryan people from whom the custom was supposed to have been borrowed really had the custom to lend. Thus Esthonian brides on the morning after the wedding are taken to make offerings to the water-spirit, and they, indeed, may have borrowed the rite from the Teutons, amongst whom a corresponding custom prevailed. But the Mokscha-Mordwins, who also have the custom, could hardly have borrowed it from the Hindoos, the Modern Greeks, the Sardinians, the Servians, or the Albanians, who are the other Aryan peoples who preserve the custom. Further, it is essential to observe that the Esthonian custom most closely resembles not that of the Teutons, with whom alone of these Aryan peoples they came in contact, but that of the Hindoos, by whom they certainly have not been influenced. Again, the -belief is so prevalent amongst primitive races that peculiar dangers attend on those about to enter the estate of matrimony, that the use of exorcism on the occasion by both Aryans and Finnish-Ugrians does not call for the borrowing hypothesis to explain it.

Every blow dealt against the solar theory has had a tendency to weaken the Asiatic hypothesis, and every attack upon the Asiatic hypothesis has diminished the plausibility of the solar theory. But the argu- ments employed by mythologists against the solar theory are based on an entirely different set of considerations from those which have led linguistic palaeontologists to call in question the Asiatic hypothesis. If their conclusions tend in the same direction, they have been reached from different quarters ; the coincidence is undesigned, and therefore the more waghty. Was Mrs. Draper’s teetotal pledge, that sooner than touch beer or spirits she would go to Loughton churchyard, and drink the blood of her dead son lying there ; and also akin hereto was the conduct of Phoebe Bunce’s boy, who drank hot water instead of tea all the time that his mother was in gaol for fortune-telling. There’s a rare piece of savagery for you, as “unnatural” as any- thing in Zulu or South Sea folk-tales.

Outside of the gypsies I have only one friend who is a habitual ghost-seer; and he isn’t exactly right; but ghosts seem to visit the gypsy camp quite en famille. Some of the Lovells, I remember, were stopping one midsummer close to a big cornfield, when in broad daylight “a black coach, drawn by four splendid black horses, drove right through the midst of the corn — you couldn’t see a blade bend — and came close by the tents, as nigh as where you’re sitting; and then vanished.” Indo-European language was not one dialect, but was divided into various dialects, and thus there might have been part of the primitive Indo-European peoples who had marriage by capture only as a sur- vival, and others who had real capture. As to the opinion expressed by Mr. Rhys with reference to the custom of eating together, he believed it to be correct himself, but they could not prove it. The circumambulation of the fire is closely connected with the sacrifice, or the offering of burnt oblations, which must have formed part of the primitive Indo-European marriage ritual, though, for reasons stated above, we can only expect to find very vague survivals of the sacrifice in modern customs. In many parts of Germany, when the priest joins the hands of the couple, the bride tries — in a literal sense — to get the upper hand, the bridegroom trying to do the same, and often a struggle of hands ensues, which is sometimes settled by the priest placing the man’s hand uppermost.